Forum Replies

  1. Hi Praveen,

    These are different topics with different solutions. First of all, keep in mind that VPN is often used to talk about encryption / authentication / security but this is not always the case. Even a VLAN could be considered a VPN, it’s “virtual” and a “private network”.

    Let me give you a quick overview in a nutshell:

    • MPLS VPN: we use this for connectivity. service providers offer MPLS for remote connectivity. For details, check the MPLS material. The "VPN" part of MPLS is that we use VRFs to separate customer routing information and we create unique
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  2. In the lesson CE <-> PE is BGP
    PE <-> P is ospf

    I tried to create a similar lab. I find that there is only a LSP if the router has a route for the destination.
    So how does the P router have an LSP for 5.5.5.5 and 1.1.1.1 ?

    PE1#show mpls forwarding-table 
    Local      Outgoing   Prefix           Bytes Label   Outgoing   Next Hop    
    Label      Label      or Tunnel Id     Switched      interface              
    16         17         4.4.4.4/32       0             Gi0/2      192.168.23.3
    17         Pop Label  192.168.34.0/24  0             Gi0/2      192.168.23.3
    18  
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  3. Hi @kayoutoure

    It might help to think about this the other way around, let’s say we don’t use MPLS but BGP on all P and PE routers. This means that:

    * The P routers have to do a lookup in their routing tables for every destination.
    * The P routers have to know about every destination…this means you’ll have to redistribute customer information into BGP.
    * iBGP has to be a full mesh so if you add another P router in your network, you’ll have to establish neighbor adjacencies with all other iBGP routers. You can make your life a bit easier with route reflectors an

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  4. Hi Rohan,

    Ethernet is more often used nowadays for the WAN. I wrote a bit about this in this lesson:

    https://networklessons.com/cisco/ccna-routing-switching-icnd2-200-105/introduction-to-metro-ethernet/

    For MPLS, it doesn’t matter that much what the underlying network is. MPLS does support transport of L2 frames, including frame-relay. This allows you to keep your current frame-relay routers on the customer side but replace the frame-relay provider with an MPLS network. Here’s a quick example:

    https://networklessons.com/mpls/any-transport-over-mpls-atom/

    In t

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  5. Hello Zaman

    MPLS functions on many vendors’ equipment as it is an open method of data-carrying. Cisco chooses to implement MPLS in combination with CEF because of their similarities in functions and the efficiency this introduces. Essentially, CEF functionality complements MPLS.

    MPLS is like CEF because it generates a table with mappings from incoming labels to outgoing labels and nex

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