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  1. Dear Rene,

    Great stuff to read.
    Can you please bit more elaborate CSNP and PSNP with examples its good if you capture it in Wireshare as well.


  2. Hi Rene,
    I have little bit confusion about CLNP (Connectionless-mode Network Protocol) and CLNS (Connectionless-mode Network Service). Could you please help me to understand it more easily ? Thx


  3. Hello Mohammad.

    Think about the CSNP as a packet that contains all of the LSPs from the current database. If this packet is sent to another router, the recipient will have a complete list of LSPs, in other words, it will have the sending router’s current view of the network. These packets are similar to OSPF database description packets.

    The PSNP is a partial list of LSPs. This is sent as a response to a specific request for specific information (for specific prefixes). This can be used to request an LSP (or LSPs) and also to acknowledge the recipt of an LSP.

    @ReneMolenaar will take your request to add more information about this subject into consideration. Thanks for the feedback!

    I hope this has been helpful.


  4. Hello Mohammad Zaman

    CLNS is the OSI based service that provides connectionless network services, that is, connectivity between nodes. It essentially provides capabilities in an OSI network environment similar to those provided by IP and UDP together. UDP is mentioned here and not TCP because CLNS is strictly a best-effort service. CLNP is the actual protocol that is used to implement it.

    ISO (the governing body that defines these standards) makes a distiction between the service offered to higher layers (CLNS) and the protocol used to implement it (CLNP). There is no equivalent structure in the TCP/IP world.

    I hope this has been helpful!


  5. Thanks Rene for answer,

    The AFI or NSEL must be 1 byte in binary and it’s represented by two decimal digit in NETs format, and we can have 255 as maximum decimal number from 1 byte, and with two decimal digit we can have 99 as maximum number, so my question is why it’s represented by two digit not three so we can reach maximum number with 1 byte (255) ??

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