One of the differences between unicast and multicast IP addresses, is that unicast IP addresses represent a single network device while multicast IP addresses represent a group of receives. IANA has reserved the class D range to use for multicast. The first 4 bits in the first octet are 1110 in binary which means that we have the 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206 range for IP multicast addresses.
Some of the addresses are reserved however and we can’t use them for our own applications.
The 220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.168 range has been reserved by IANA to use for network protocols. All multicast IP packets in this range are not forwarded by routers between subnets. Let me give you an overview of reserved link-local multicast addresses, I’m sure you recognize some of the protocols:
|22.214.171.124||All Multicast Routers|
|126.96.36.199||OSPF DR/BDR Router|
|188.8.131.52||DHCP Server / Relay|
|184.108.40.206||All PIM Routers|
|220.127.116.11||All CBT Routers|
|18.104.22.168 – 255||Unassigned|
You probably recognized OSPF (22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199), RIPv2 (188.8.131.52) and EIGRP (184.108.40.206). Once you dive more into multicast you will also encounter PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) with 220.127.116.11.
IANA also reserved the 18.104.22.168 /24 range for certain applications. Everything in the 22.214.171.124 /24 range can be routed however, unlike the 126.96.36.199 /24 range. Here’s an overview: