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1. Hello Rene,
As this is my first post, I would like to thank you for sharing all this knowledge and thank you for your efforts and explanations.

I am having a hard time understanding the "Header length " section. The entire section starting with:

Header Length: this 4 bit field tells us the length of the IP header in 32 bit increments.

2. Hi Romani,
Welcome to the forums!

The key to understand the necessity of Header Length is to realize that with IPv4 the size of the header is not fixed (like it is in IPv6). The size of the IPv4 header must be at least 20 bytes, but it can be bigger, too. What makes it bigger are the additions of “options.” To learn more about options go here

Since the size of the IPv4 header is variable, the purpose of the Header Length is to specify just how big it actually is, but there are rules as to what sizes are allowed. As mentioned earlier, the minimum is 20 bytes

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3. Hello Ajay.

The Header Length is a 4 bit field. That means that it can represent numbers from 0 to 15. The minimum number that the field can have however is 5. The resulting header length is calculated with the following formula:

Length = Header Length * 32 bits

If the value of the Header Length field is the minimum, that is 5, then:

Length = 5 * 32 bits = 160 bits = 20 bytes

If the value of the header length field is the maximum, that is 15, then:

Length = 15 * 32 bits = 480 bits = 60 bytes

The total length is the length of the whole packet. This is a 16 b

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4. Ajay,
The Total Length field represents the size in bytes. A 16 bit field has a maximum numeric (decimal) value of 65,535, but that value is just a number. The meaning of that number is “how large is this packet in BYTES.”

If you receive a packet of 9000 and receiving MTU is less than that, you MUST have DF=0 otherwise the packet will be dropped. As you correctly point out, with DF=0, the packet will be fragmented, but that doesn’t mean it won’t be “without issue.” In this case a performance hit would be expected for two reasons:

1. The act of fragmenting con
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