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  1. Hi VJ,

    The range is used for loopback addresses. is the network address and is the broadcast address.

    You can ping any address in the range except those two.


  2. Hi Rene,

    What about the Range ~ ?? Please give a short defination of CIDR and VLSM . Is both are some ??


  3. Hello Rahul

    You are correct that IP is a connectionless protocol. However the need to use TCP depends not on the connectionless nature of IP, but on the upper layer application being served. For web traffic, email or FTP for example, TCP (which creates sessions between hosts) must be used because the applications demand it.

    Other applications do not require the connection-oriented nature of TCP such as Voice and Video, which use RTP, or DNS which uses UDP. These layer 4 protocols do not create sessions nor do they provide any reliability.

    Some applications d

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  4. Hello Muhammad

    This is an excellent question and it shows that you are thinking deeply about these concepts, and that’s great. So, the IP protocol is a connectionless protocol. This does indeed mean that each packet is treated independently. In other words, each packet is sent and forgotten. There is no mechanism that will check to see if IP packets have arrived safely, in order and in a timely manner. (this is taken care of at higher layers of the OSI model, like TCP and Application)

    Now an IP packet can theoretically have a maximum size of just over 6500

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  5. Hello Francisco

    In general, it is best practice not to use routable IP addresses on the internal infrastructure. However, it is possible to use these addresses internally. In many cases you can get away with it and it will work fine. However, if a host on the inside is trying to reach a routable IP address of a web server on the Internet, for example, but that IP address also exists on the inside of the network, such a request will go to the inside address and not to the web server on the Internet.

    This is the primary reason for the segregation of IP address

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