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  1. Hi Rene,

    What about the Range ~ ?? Please give a short defination of CIDR and VLSM . Is both are some ??


  2. I have one query. Since IP is connectionless protocol, it needs UDP/TCP to ‘transport’ data. But with traffic generators (Ixia/Spirent), I can create an IP packet without any L4 protocol and able to send and receive the data. How might that be working?

  3. Hello Rahul

    You are correct that IP is a connectionless protocol. However the need to use TCP depends not on the connectionless nature of IP, but on the upper layer application being served. For web traffic, email or FTP for example, TCP (which creates sessions between hosts) must be used because the applications demand it.

    Other applications do not require the connection-oriented nature of TCP such as Voice and Video, which use RTP, or DNS which uses UDP. These layer 4 protocols do not create sessions nor do they provide any reliability.

    Some applications d

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  4. Hello Muhammad

    This is an excellent question and it shows that you are thinking deeply about these concepts, and that’s great. So, the IP protocol is a connectionless protocol. This does indeed mean that each packet is treated independently. In other words, each packet is sent and forgotten. There is no mechanism that will check to see if IP packets have arrived safely, in order and in a timely manner. (this is taken care of at higher layers of the OSI model, like TCP and Application)

    Now an IP packet can theoretically have a maximum size of just over 6500

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