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  1. Hi Lynkaran,

    When R3 sends the IP packet, it will use 192.168.23.3 as the source address. You can see this in the wireshark capture.

    Rene

  2. Hello Hussein.

    You are correct when you say that you cannot skip an OSI layer when communicating on the network. However, we can BEGIN our communication at layer 3 and go down to layer 1. In this case we are not skipping layers 4-7. Let me express this in an example:

    When you start an FTP file transfer from your computer, you are BEGINNING your communication at the Application layer, or layer 7. As you go down the OSI stack, you cannot skip layer 2 for example. MAC addresses must be placed in the L2 header and appropriate header information must be include

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  3. Hello Hussein.

    I’m glad it was helpful!

    Laz

  4. Hello TAIMOOR

    First of all there is no such thing as a stupid question. Secondly, yes, you are correct. R1 and R3 must have some sort of routing (either static or dynamic) to be able to find each other’s networks.

    I hope this has been helpful!

    Laz

  5. Hello again Rosna

    In traceroute, a probe is the number of ICMP echo requests sent to each individual hop. So if a traceroute has 7 hops to the destination, the Cisco device will send three probes, or three ICMP echo requests to each of the 7 hops for a total of 21 ICMP echo requests. If you select one probe, a single ICMP request will be sent to each hop. You won’t actually see a difference in the traceroute output.

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