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  1. Hi Zaman,

    Error correction before transmission doesn’t make much sense to me. TCP uses a sequence number and acknowledgment number, these can be used for retransmissions if something doesn’t make it to the other side.

    The other thing that TCP does is calculating a checksum for the header. This allows the receiver to check if the TCP segment is OK or not.


  2. Durga,
    The Internet would break :slight_smile:

    Seriously, it would, and here’s why: Let’s say we tried to use MAC addresses as a layer 3 identity for communicating between devices at a distance (not on the same local network). MAC addresses are burned into the network cards by the manufacturer, and each card has a unique MAC (in theory). The problem comes when you are trying to keep track of who is where. The reason that the Internet is able to function now is primary due to a protocol called BGP that figures out the best way to get from one IP address to another.

    Even t

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  3. Hi Rene,

    Sonet \SDH belongs to which layer in OSI ? I believe it belongs to layer-1 , if so next concern is which layer 2 protocol it use for encapsulation like Ethernet interface use Ethernet frame (layer-2) frame to encapsulate , will it use sonet/sdh frame in layer-2 ? If possible please demonstrate a scenario about the packet flow of traffic from Ethernet source to Ethernet destination and if we have sonet\sdh networks in between it.


  4. When I learned the OSI Model years ago. I’ve always like this saying.

    Please, Don’t, Never, Throw, Sausage, Pizza, Away

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