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  1. Hello Rene,
    Couple of questions.

    1. Is it possible to provide me an example to show the difference between congestion management and congestion avoidance. As a matter of fact, I do not understand TCP Global Synchronization very well. It will be great if you use an example to explain congestion management and avoidance by relating to TCP Global Synchronization.

    2. This question is basically based upon Priority command VS Bandwidth command. Priority command is used to ensure the maximum bandwidth during the congestion. On the other hand, Bandwidth is used to ensure

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  2. Hi Azm,

    Congestion management is about dealing with congestion when it occurs and congestion avoidance is trying to avoid congestion. To understand congestion avoidance, you have to think about how the TCP window size and global synchronization works. I explained this in this lesson:

    Congestion avoidance works by dropping certain TCP segments so that the window size reduces, slowing down the TCP transmission and by doing so, preventing congestion from happening.

    The difference between priority

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  3. Hello Rene,
    Thanks a lot for your explanation. However, still needs some more clarification. Lets’ say I have an interface GIg 0/1 that is capable of handling 100 packets per second. I have three different kinds of traffic passing through the interface. They are Traffic A, B and C.

    And the QoS is configured like this:

    Traffic A: Priority 50 packets
    Traffic B: Bandwidth 25 packets
    Traffic C: Bandwidth 25 packets

    I am just using packets per second instead of MB or KB per second.

    As far as my understanding goes, QoS will work like this:

    #Every second the interface

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  4. Hello Laz,
    That was my question and that is the answer I was looking for. Thank you so much as usual.


  5. Hello Laz,
    I have a question and I am going to refer to the below configuration for my question.

    class-map match-any VOICE
     match dscp ef 
     match dscp cs5 
     match dscp cs4 
    policy-map NESTED-POLICY
     class VOICE
      priority percent 80
     class class-default
      bandwidth percent 20
      random-detect dscp-based
    policy-map INTERNET-OUT
     class class-default
      shape average 10000000
       service-policy NESTED-POLICY
    Interface Gig 1/0/1
     service-policy output INTERNET-OUT

    In this configuration, I have two different classes: Voice and other traffic. Here, 80 %

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