Cisco SD-WAN Controllers Installation

If you want to learn Cisco SD-WAN and do some labs then you have two options:

The sandboxes are great if you want to jump right into testing things like policies, templates, or the REST API. You don’t have to worry about building a topology and setting everything up.

However, if you are new to SD-WAN then building everything from scratch is a good idea. You’ll learn how everything works right from the beginning and once it’s up and running, it’s always available to you. You will also be able to connect devices to your lab that the sandboxes don’t provide. In this lesson, we’ll configure the required controllers:

    • vManage
    • vBond
    • vSmart

You can learn more about what these controllers do in our introduction to SD-WAN lesson.

Once you finish this lesson, the controllers are up and running and you are ready to onboard vEdge routers.

Configuration










Let me give you an overview of what we are going to do. When you boot the vManage, vBond, or vSmart controllers for the first time, you will only have access to the CLI. On each controller, we have to configure two items:

  • System configuration: A basic configuration where we specify things such as a hostname, organization name, and some other items.
  • VPN0 interface: This is the overlay network.

With a basic configuration, the controllers will have network reachability and can talk to each other. The other thing we have to take care of are certificates.  Cisco SD-WAN requires certificates on each and every device. To create certificates, we’ll set up a new root CA and sign certificates ourselves for all controllers (and vEdge routers once we finish the installation of the controllers).

Setting everything up is not too difficult once you understand the steps but it is time-consuming.

Here is the topology we’ll use:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Controllers Lab Topology Site1

Let me explain what we have:

  • Site 1:
    • This is where we add our controllers:
      • vManage
      • vBond
      • vSmart
    • System IPs:
      • The addresses in purple are not IP addresses but system IPs.
      • Each Cisco SD-WAN requires a unique system IP that is similar to a router ID like you use in OSPF or BGP.
      • You can’t use this address anywhere else, not even on a physical interface.
    • DC1:
      • This is an IOS switch I use to connect the controllers to the same VLAN (10).
      • The switch connects to two different “clouds” to simulate two different ISPs.
  • Internet connectivity:
    • Clouds:
      • biz-internet: This cloud simulates a “business class” Internet connection. In reality, it connects to a VLAN on my office network which provides Internet access.
      • public-internet: This cloud simulates a “normal” Internet connection. In reality, it connects to another VLAN on my office network which provides Internet access.
  • vEdges: the vEdge routers connect through one of the two Internet connections to reach our controllers.

I’m using the Cisco SD-WAN Release 19.3.x images for this lab. Under the hood, I am using Eve-NG.

vManage










Let’s start with vManage. This is our NMS (Network Management System) where we control and monitor our SD-WAN network once everything is up and running.

Startup Configuration

Let’s log in. The default username and password is “admin”:

vmanage login: admin
Password: 
Welcome to Viptela CLI
admin connected from 127.0.0.1 using console on vmanage
You must set an initial admin password.
Password: 
Re-enter password: 

The first time you log in you get a message that you have to select a storage device. I use the 100GB drive that I created when I built the entire topology in Eve-NG:

Available storage devices:
vdb     100GB
hdc     3GB
1) vdb
2) hdc
Select storage device to use: 1
Would you like to format vdb? (y/n): y
mke2fs 1.43.8 (1-Jan-2018)
Creating filesystem with 26214400 4k blocks and 6553600 inodes
Filesystem UUID: 55c71c51-4e3d-4f74-96cb-cee2c32917f2
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872

Allocating group tables: done                            
Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (131072 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done   

wall: cannot get tty name: Success
                                                                               
Broadcast message from root@vmanage (somewhere) (Thu Jul  8 13:36:31 2021):    
                                                                               
13:44:26.454 §Thu Jul  8 13:36:31 UTC 2021: The system is going down for reboot NOW!

Once it’s done formatting the drive, the vManage controller reboots. This can take a few minutes. Once you see the following message you can log in again:

System Ready

If you don’t see this message then you will be able to log in but it throws an authentication failure:

viptela 19.3.0 

vmanage login: admin
Password: 

System Initializing. Please wait to login...


Authentication failure

Once you are logged in you see the # symbol. This tells us we are in the CLI mode:

vmanage#

Let’s start with a basic system configuration:

vmanage(config)# system
vmanage(config-system)# host-name vManage1
vmanage(config-system)# system-ip 172.16.1.101
vmanage(config-system)# site-id 1
vmanage(config-system)# organization-name nwl-lab-sdwan
vmanage(config-system)# vbond 10.1.0.2
vmanage(config-system)# exit

And let’s configure the VPN0 interface:

vmanage(config)# vpn 0
vmanage(config-interface-eth0)# ip route 0.0.0.0/0 10.1.0.254
vmanage(config-vpn-0)# interface eth0
vmanage(config-interface-eth0)# ip address 10.1.0.1/24
vmanage(config-interface-eth0)# no shutdown
vmanage(config-interface-eth0)# tunnel-interface 
vmanage(config-tunnel-interface)# allow-service all
vmanage(config-tunnel-interface)# exit
vmanage(config-interface-eth0)# exit
vmanage(config-vpn-0)# exit
vmanage(config)# 

The VPN0 configuration requires some explanation:

  • The tunnel-interface command configures the eth0 interface as a tunnel interface.
  • The allow-service all command allows all traffic over the VPN0 interface. By default, only DTLS, TLS, and IPSec (for vEdges) traffic is allowed. This will be useful later in our lab.

Before the configuration becomes active, we have to commit it:

vmanage(config)# commit
Commit complete.

Certificates

As I explained at the beginning of this lesson, Cisco SD-WAN requires certificates on all devices. When you generate your own certificates you have different options. For example, some different options are:

  • Cisco IOS router.
  • Linux box.
  • Windows server.

All Cisco SD-WAN controllers run Linux and come with some useful commands, including OpenSSL. I’m going to use the openssl command on the vManage controller to generate every certificate we need.

You can use the vshell command to access the Linux commands. For a detailed explanation of how to build your own CA, you can always check the openssl ca server lesson.

Root CA Certificate

First, we need to create a root CA and the first step is to generate a private key. Let’s open vshell:

vManage1# vshell
vManage1:~$

Notice how the # changes to a $. We are now in the home folder:

vManage1:~$ pwd
/home/admin

Let’s generate a private key and call it ROOT-CA.key:

vManage1:~$ openssl genrsa -out ROOT-CA.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
.........
......
e is 65537 (0x10001)

Use the following one-liner to create a root CA certificate using the private key we just created:

vManage1:~$ openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key ROOT-CA.key -sha256 -days 3652 \
-subj "/C=NL/ST=NL/O=nwl-lab-sdwan/CN=vmanage1.lab.nwl.ai" \
-out ROOT-CA.pem

This root certificate is valid for 10 years. You can set the subject if you want. In the output above I showed how you can do that but it’s not a requirement.

Let’s take a look at our certificate with the cat command:

vmanage:~$ cat ROOT-CA.pem
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Now it’s time to open the vManage GUI. This is where we need to install the certificate.

Open a web browser and enter the URL https://10.1.0.1:8443/. You’ll see the following screen:

cisco-sd-wan-viptela-vmanage-login-screen

Log in with username and password “admin” and you’ll end up at the main dashboard. Go to Administration > Settings:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Administration Settings Button

While we are here, we need to change two settings that don’t have anything to do with the root CA certificate but that we do have to change. Look for the organization name:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Administration Settings Organization Name

Set the Organization name and click on Save. Now open the vBond settings:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Administration Settings Vbond

Enter the IP address of the vBond orchestrator and click on Save. Now look for Controller Certificate Authorization:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Administration Settings Controller Certificate Authorization

The default setting is Cisco Automated. If you use Cisco SD-WAN in a production network you can have all your certificates signed automatically. We are not so lucky for our home lab so change it to Enterprise Root Certificate and paste the contents of the ROOT-CA.pem file here:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Administration Settings Controller Certificate Authorization Ca

Click Import & Save.

vManage Certificate

Now it’s time for the vManage certificate. Head over to Configuration > Certificates > Controllers > vManage > Generate CSR:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Certificate Vmanage Csr

You’ll see a pop-up which shows the CSR:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Certificate Vmanage Csr Download

You don’t have to download or copy and paste to your clipboard because it’s saved locally automatically. Let me show you. We’ll open vshell on our vManage controller:

vManage1# vshell

Take a look at the contents of our home folder:

vManage1:~$ ls -lh
total 16K
-rw-r--r-- 1 admin admin 1.7K Jul  8 13:50 ROOT-CA.key
-rw-r--r-- 1 admin admin 1.3K Jul  8 13:51 ROOT-CA.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 admin admin  394 Jul  8 13:40 archive_id_rsa.pub
-rw-r--r-- 1 root  root  1.2K Jul  8 14:14 vmanage_csr

The CSR is saved automatically in /home/admin as vmanage_csr.

Let’s sign a certificate. You can use the following openssl command:

vManage1:~$ openssl x509 -req -in vmanage_csr \
>     -CA ROOT-CA.pem -CAkey ROOT-CA.key -CAcreateserial \
>     -out vmanage1.crt -days 1826 -sha256
Signature ok
subject=/C=US/ST=California/L=San Jose/OU=nwl-lab-sdwan/O=Viptela LLC/CN=vmanage-4a0c409a-bc56-428d-9449-c27635715990-0.viptela.com/emailAddress=support@viptela.com
Getting CA Private Key

In the output above, you can see it uses a default subject because I didn’t specify one. That’s no problem at all. We only care about a valid certificate.

Use cat to see the output:

vmanage:~$ cat vmanage1.crt
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Go back to the vManage GUI and click on Install Certificate. Paste the contents of the vmanage1.crt file here:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Certificate Vmanage Install Certificate2

Click on Install. It might take a few seconds to install the certificate but once it does, you’ll see the Success message:

Cisco Sd Wan Viptela Vmanage Certificate Vmanage Install Certificate Success

This completes the configuration of the vManage controller. Let me summarize what we just did:

  • We created a new root CA:
    • Generated a private key.
    • Generated a root CA certificate.
  • We created a certificate for the vManage controller:
    • Generated a CSR.
    • Signed the certificate on the CLI.
    • Installed the certificate through the GUI.

One down, two to go. We have the vBond and vSmart controllers left!

vBond

vBond is the orchestrator in our SD-WAN network.










Startup Configuration

Let’s log in for the first time:

viptela 19.3.0 

vedge login: admin
Password: 
Welcome to Viptela CLI
admin connected from 127.0.0.1 using console on vedge
You must set an initial admin password.
Password: 
Re-enter password:

The username and password is “admin”. If you look closely, you can see it shows “vedge”. This is because the vBond orchestrator and vEdge routers share the same image. We’ll start with the system configuration:

vedge(config)# system
vedge(config-system)# host-name vBond1
vedge(config-system)# system-ip 172.16.1.102
vedge(config-system)# site-id 1
vedge(config-system)# organization-name nwl-lab-sdwan
vedge(config-system)# vbond 10.1.0.2 local
vedge(config-system)# exit

The configuration above is similar to the vManage controller configuration except for the vbond command. We have to add the local parameter. This tells vBond that the local device is the vBond orchestrator.

Let’s continue with the VPN0 interface:

vedge(config)# vpn 0
vedge(config-vpn-0)# ip route 0.0.0.0/0 10.1.0.254
vedge(config-vpn-0)# interface ge0/0
vedge(config-interface-ge0/0)# ip address 10.1.0.2/24
vedge(config-interface-ge0/0)# tunnel-interface 
vedge(config-tunnel-interface)# encapsulation ipsec
vedge(config-tunnel-interface)# allow-service all
vedge(config-tunnel-interface)# no shutdown
vedge(config-tunnel-interface)# exit
vedge(config-interface-ge0/0)# exit
vedge(config-vpn-0)# exit
vedge(config)# commit
Commit complete.

The VPN0 configuration is similar to the one on the vManage controller. One difference is that we have to specify the encapsulation type (GRE or IPSec) with the encapsulation command.

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No Questions Asked!

Forum Replies

  1. Hi Laz,

    Yes I got an acceptable answer in the Cisco Community.

    Thanks

    SB

  2. I have tried to add vsmart controller as a device on vmanage however am getting errors SDWAN vSmart Failed to add device java.io. connection timeout. However i have added vbond successful and all controllers are reachable

  3. Hey Rene,

    It looks like the vSmart1 configuration has a different organization-name from the other two. It wouldn’t join properly in vManage NMS.

  4. Hello Justin

    Thanks for pointing that out, it may be a typo. I will let Rene know to make any necessary changes.

    Thanks again!

    Laz

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