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  1. So Good and very helpful for me.Thanks you RENE!!! Your are very good for us.

  2. I really enjoyed this lesson so much I memorized the main topics as I like letter groupings so I did CAE HV and TBD FSR don’t ask me why that is easy for me to remember but something about those stick in my memory. Just like
    E ACE WNI D for the log messages. I sometimes forget a letters meaning but a quick look puts it back in my memory for weeks if not longer. The grouping is also important for me remember… weird huh lol…

    Anyway I really liked this lesson it stood out for me as one of my favorites.

  3. Hello Vimal

    Latency and bandwidth issues can be among the most difficult to troubleshoot. Some things that you can do to try to pinpoint this lantency include:

    1. Verify latency and the path that is being taken by packets experiencing the delay using tools such as traceroute
    2. Examine the interfaces of the network devices through which the particular latency has been identified using the show interface command. Look for queues being overflowed, errors, dropped frames or any other anomaly.
    3. Examine the routers through which packets are being routed and verify that CPU usage is low and that QoS mechanisms are functioning correctly. Verify that no policing or shaping is causing latency.
    4. Use network monitoring tools to examine the flow of traffic through your network in order to identify potential bottlenecks.

    This is just a start, but I hope it helps you on your way.


  4. Hello Vimal

    Policing and shaping are QoS techniques that are used to enforce lower bit rates than what the physical interface is capable of. Shaping will buffer traffic that goes beyond the allowed bit rate, while policing will drop packets that exceed the bit rate.

    If packets are buffered during shaping, then this means that buffered packets will be delayed in their traversal of the network. This will only occur if the enforced limit is reached. If traffic rates are below the enforced limit, no latency will occur.

    The results of policing are even more severe. If packets are dropped, then other error correction mechanisms (such as those used with TCP) will have to kick in at higher layers to have the lost packets resent. This brings about even more delays. If UDP is being used, packets are lost for good resulting not in latency, but packet loss.

    You can find out more about shaping and policing at the following lessons:

    I hope this has been helpful!


  5. Many thanks ! once again Laz. Things are getting friendly now. I really enjoyed it :grinning:

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